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An exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and/or noxious gases away from the users of the machine. Indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill an enclosed space with poisonous exhaust gases such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, if they are not properly vented to the outdoors. Also, the gases from most types of machines are very hot; the pipe must be heat-resistant, and it must not pass through or near anything that can burn or can be damaged by heat. A chimney serves as an exhaust pipe in a stationary structure. For the internal combustion engine it is important to have the exhaust system "tuned" (refer to tuned exhaust) for optimal efficiency. Also this should meet the regulation norms maintained in each country. In China, China 5; In European countries, EURO 5; In India, BS-4, etc.,
Exhaust piping and silencer (muffler) on a Ducati Monster motorcycle
In most motorcycles all or most of the exhaust system is visible and may be chrome plated as a display feature. Aftermarket exhausts may be made from steel, aluminum, titanium, or carbon fiber.
Motorcycle exhausts come in many varieties depending on the type of engine and its intended use. A twin cylinder may flow its exhaust into separate exhaust sections, such as seen in the Kawasaki EX250 (also known as the Ninja 250 in the US, or the GPX 250). Or, they may flow into a single exhaust section known as a two-into-one (2-1). Larger engines that come with 4 cylinders, such as Japanese super-sport or super-bikes (such the Kawasaki ZX series, Honda's CBR series, Yamaha's YZF series, also known as R6 and R1, and Suzuki's GSX-R series) often come with a twin exhaust system. A "full system" may be bought as an aftermarket accessory, also called a 4-2-1 or 4-1, depending on its layout. In the past, these bikes would come standard with a single exhaust, as seen on the Kawasaki ZX-6R 2000 and 2001 models. However, EU noise and pollution regulations have generally stopped this practice, forcing companies to use other methods to increase performance of the motorcycle.
A 2-stroke exhaust can be made to be quieter than 70dBa at 6000 rpm without sacrificing any power gains. The latest generations of 4-stroke street motorcycle engines that can come close to a 2T in redline RPM but still having the extra weight and inertia of cams and valves make the differences in being "cleaner burning" negligible, with the decreased engine service life to be expected, while also having the sound of a 4T exhaust carrying for miles in many cases. Additionally, "the nature of the beast" is that a 4T exhaust note above 6000 rpm is unduly harsh to the human ear.
In many trucks / Lorries all or most of the exhaust system is visible. Often in such trucks the silencer is surrounded by a perforated metal sheath to avoid people getting burnt touching the hot silencer. This sheath may be chrome plated as a display feature. Part of the pipe between the engine and the silencer is often flexible metal industrial ducting, which helps to avoid vibration from the engine being transferred into the exhaust system. Sometimes a large diesel exhaust pipe is vertical, to blow the hot noxious gas well away from people; in such cases the end of the exhaust pipe often has a hinged metal flap to stop debris, birds and rainwater from falling inside.